(Türkçe) is a language spoken by over 63 million people
worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages.
Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Cyprus, with smaller
groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania,
Kosovo, and other parts of Eastern Europe. Turkish is also spoken by
several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly in Germany.
roots of the language can be traced to Central Asia, with the first
written records dating back nearly 1,200 years. To the west, the influence
of Ottoman Turkish—the immediate precursor of today's Turkish—spread
as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's
Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script
was replaced with a phonetic variant of the Latin alphabet. Concurrently,
the newly-founded Turkish Language Association initiated a drive to
reform the language by removing Persian and Arabic loanwords in favor
of native variants and coinages from Turkic roots.
distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive
agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is Subject Object Verb.
Turkish has a T-V distinction: second-person plural forms can be used
for individuals as a sign of respect. Turkish also has no noun classes
or grammatical gender.